A lot of people in the world today struggle with reading for one reason or another; however, there are children and adults whose struggle is more extreme, largely due to one of a variety reading disorders. 

For the longest time, reading and learning difficulties were attributed to laziness. It is only with modern advancements in medicine that the world has come to recognize reading disorders as a learning disability that no amount of hard work could possibly overcome. These disorders are present from a young age and usually result from specific differences in the way the brain processes language.

PREVALENT READING DISORDERS THAT REQUIRE IMMEDIATE ATTENTION

As with many learning disorders, little is known about the exact causes of reading disabilities. There are many different symptoms and types of reading disorders, and not everyone with a reading disorder has every symptom. Recent studies have suggested that people with reading disabilities have a more difficult time making certain associations within the context of what they read.

While there are no known treatments for reading disabilities that can guarantee a positive outcome, most medical experts agree that recognizing the existence of reading disabilities and disorders is a step in the right direction. Some of the most prevalent reading disabilities today include the following:

Dyslexia

One of the most common reading disorders is dyslexia.  Dyslexia is a brain-based type of learning disability that specifically impairs a person’s ability to read.  The number of children suffering from dyslexia is continuing to grow with each new generation. Common characteristics among dyslexics are difficulty with phonological processing (manipulation of sounds), spelling and rapid visual-verbal responding.

For a person to read correctly they must be able to map the phenomes they hear to the letters they see on the page and vice versa. Dyslexic individuals struggle with this process. They struggle to sound out words, many times confusing certain letters and their sounds. They also tend to read without expression.

Comprehension Deficit

Often lumped under dyslexia, comprehension deficit is its own disorder specifically found in children with social-linguistic disabilities (e.g. autism, etc.). Because comprehension relies on one’s ability to decode, individuals that struggle to decode often fail to understand or even remember the things they read.

Individuals who suffer from comprehension deficit have issues with language. As a result, they have difficulty tying information throughout a text together and making inferences with that information. The effort individuals in such situations make to try and comprehend the material they are reading will often leave them mentally exhausted. Patients of comprehension deficit tend to omit or gloss over certain details. They also lack concentration when reading.

Retention Deficit

A lot of children today struggle with the ability to retain the information they read.  This hindrance not only affects their ability to decode efficiently but it also impedes their ability to comprehend the material they have read.  Reading is central to classroom work and children are expected to retain more and more of the material they read as they advance in school.  Therefore retention difficulties can present quite a challenge to any child’s education.

Orthographic Processing Deficit

People suffering from orthographic processing deficit are disabled in the area of reading fluency. They have the ability to decode but do so in a laborious fashion.  This in turn affects their reading speed as well as the accuracy of recognizing the words they are reading. Also called a fluency problem, individuals with this disorder take too long to recognize words or remember how words are spelled.

Dyscalculia

This learning disorder impacts an individual’s ability to interpret and understand numbers, thus complicating their ability to learn math facts. Children with this disorder struggle to memorize and organize numbers. They also find some difficulty telling the time.

Despite the difficulties medical professionals encounter in their efforts to treat reading disabilities, parents, guardians and teachers of individuals with reading disorders should remain encouraged.  Make an effort to recognize the true sources of the difficulties children might be facing in their efforts to learn to read. That alone will allow these young minds to receive the attention they need to help them in their journey of overcoming their disorders.